Context and approach for Internet trolling prosecutions in England & Wales

Context is important and prosecutors should have regard to the fact that the context in which interactive social media dialogue takes place is quite different to the context in which other communications take place. Access is ubiquitous and instantaneous. Banter, jokes and offensive comments are commonplace and often spontaneous. Communications intended for a few may reach millions. As Eady J stated in the civil case of Smith v ADVFN [2008] 1797 (QB) in relation to comments on an internet bulletin board:

“… [they are] like contributions to a casual conversation (the analogy sometimes being drawn with people chatting in a bar) which people simply note before moving on; they are often uninhibited, casual and ill thought out; those who participate know this and expect a certain amount of repartee or ‘give and take’.”

Against that background, prosecutors should only proceed with cases under section 1 of the Malicious Communications Act 1988 and section 127 of the Communications Act 2003 where they are satisfied there is sufficient evidence that the communication in question is more than:

  1. Offensive, shocking or disturbing; or
  2. Satirical, iconoclastic or rude comment; or
  3. The expression of unpopular or unfashionable opinion about serious or trivial matters, or banter or humour, even if distasteful to some or painful to those subjected to it.

If so satisfied, prosecutors should go on to consider whether a prosecution is required in the public interest.

More information

These guidelines form part of the Crown Prosecution Service’s guidelines on prosecuting cases involving communications sent via social media, which were issued in June 2013. Prosecutors should be aware that if they do not follow these guidelines they could be investigated by the Independent Police Complains Commission and/or have any prosecution dismissed by a judge.

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